Difference between mitosis and meiosis

Difference between mitosis and meiosis

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Difference between mitosis and meiosis: simple explanation of when mitosis occurs and when meiosis, what are the differences between these two types of cell reproduction typical of the eukaryotic cell.

The difference between mitosis and meiosis is something thathauntsstudents since middle school!
Guys! No fear! Understanding the difference between meiosis and mitosis is simple, you just have to fix some basic concepts in your mind.

When does mitosis occur and when does meiosis occur?
The cells of our body renew themselves continuously and they do so by exploiting mitosis.
Meiosis, on the other hand, is a process that occurs only with cells that have reproductive function (gametocytes) and later on you will also understand the reason well, because in biology nothing happens by chance!

Mitosis and meiosis

Mitosis and meiosis are both processes ofreproductionof eukaryotic cells but it is absolutely wrongmerge them,the reason? These are two different processes.

What is the difference between mitosis and meiosis?
In summary:

  • With mitosis, 2 completely identical daughter cells are obtained from one parent cell.
  • With meiosis, 4 haploid daughter cells are obtained from a diploid parent cell, so the resulting daughter cells are different from the parent cell.
  • Mitosis affects all somatic cells of the body
  • Meiosis affects gametes (cells with reproductive function)

We talked about haploid and diploid cells, we talked about gametes and somatic cells ... Let's see in detail what is the difference between mitosis and meiosis by analyzing specifically what we have just said.

Difference between mitosis and meiosis

Let's go to the definitions and start frommeiosis.

Meiosis is a process by which a eukaryotic cell with a diploid chromosomal set gives rise to four cells with a haploid chromosomal set. Meiosis is a process of cell division aimed at sexual reproduction, as it leads to the formation of gametes.

What does it mean?
That starts with a mother cell that has a complete chromosomal set and 4 daughter cells are obtained which have a halved chromosomal set. In the case of humans, the starting mother cell has 46 chromosomes and with meiosis, 4 daughter cells with 23 chromosomes are obtained.

Let's go to mitosis and its definition:

Mitosis is a process of reproduction by which 2 daughter cells genetically identical to the progenitor are formed from a single mother cell.

What does it mean?
That with mitosis we start from a diploid cell (just like in meiosis) but here thecell reproductionwill lead to the formation of 2 cellsdiploid, two cells identical to the parent cell. Always using human cells as an example, the starting cell has 46 chromosomes and with mitosis there will be 2 daughter cells with 46 chromosomes!

When does meiosis happen?

Meiosis is the process of reproducingsex cells, that is, of the gametic cell. In our body we all have diploid cells (i.e. with 46 chromosomes), except for the material intended for our sexual reproduction (i.e.oocyteor egg cell in women and sperm in men).

THEgametes have haploid chromosomal makeup, that is "halved" (they have 23 chromosomes). This is also intuitableas a situation. You know well that you are "the fruit of the union of your biological parents "each gave 50% of the genetic material needed for your training.

Gametes have a kithalvedbecause it will form a "complete" (diploid) outfit when you go toto mergewith the other complementary gamete. In practice, "egg cell + sperm" = the first diploid cell in your body.

At the time offertilizationthe twohaploid gametesthey share the two chromosomal sets and form thezygotewhich is the first celldiploidof the human being! The very first cell that forms the new individual!

When does mitosis occur?

After the union of the two gametes has been completed (with fertilization) from this moment on, the cells will reproduce by mitosis.

As stated, meiosis only affects the sex cells.

Cell reproduction process

ThereMeiosis 2 (or meiosis II) on a descriptive level, it is identical to mitosis.

The difference between the two processes lies in themeiosis I (or meiosis 1). In meiosis there is a reduction in the chromosomal makeup. We have onedouble copy of our genetic heritage,that's why we have 46 chromosomes. We actually have 23 pairs of chromosomes, so two identical copies.

In the photo above, the summary scheme of meiosis 1 and meiosis 2 is shown.

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